December 2013 - Volume 1 - Issue 2
THE RESPONSIBILITY OF PROFESSIONAL FOOTBALL CLUBS UNDER THE ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL RULES
di Giuseppe Liotta*
The legislative decree number 231 of 2001 introduces the accountability of corporations for unlawful administrative actions, which set a crime (this includes corporations with or without legal status). Specifically, the corporation is responsible for alleged crimes committed in its interests or with the aim of taking an advantage. This represents the idea of alleged accountability:
- by people who represent the corporation or have administrative as well as managerial functions in the corporation or in its entities (financially and functionally autonomous). In addition, by people who manage and control substantially the corporation;
- by people under the supervision or directions of the subjects mentioned above (the concept of accountability provided in article 2049 in the Italian civil code according to some doctrine).
This decree plays a direct impact on football clubs in consideration of the approval of article 7 of the new Statute which affirms that “the Federal Council issues the necessary regulation and supervises so that the clubs participating in the national championships adopt organizational, managerial and surveillance models suitable for preventing the fulfillment of actions contrary to fair play and probity in every activities”. Basically, these are the exact principles mentioned above in the decree. [Read more ...]
BROADCASTING MARKET’S DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE AFTER EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE, OCTOBER 4th 2011
di Laura Santoro*
1. Antitrust issues relevant to the subject of television rights, which have been subject to analysis at European level, relate both to the horizontal relations, namely those between economic operators which are located within the same market level, and vertical relationships, that are those between operators that are placed in different levels of market. 4th
The television rights market has a particular connotation as the relevant market for the purposes of application of antitrust law. In general, each market is susceptible to evaluation from two different perspectives, one pertaining to the product scope, through the consideration of products and services that can be said to be in competition, and the other relevant to the geographic scope, through the identification of the area in which the conditions of competition are homogeneous. However, with respect to the television rights market, both perspectives are of particular importance. Cultural differences and language barriers between different countries, indeed, strongly influence the geographic extent of the market. At the same time, the importance of sporting events, attracting more people than other events, including those related to football and, to a lesser extent, cycling and Formula 1, result in a fragmentation of the market into smaller markets involving television rights on events in general, television rights for sports events in general and television rights related to sport events with a high audience, which within professional football games fall.
Moreover, inside the market of television rights relating to professional football, are further distinguished, among other sport events, the matches of Series A and B, and events cup, such as the UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League. [Read more ...]
LO SCIOPERO DEI CALCIATORI E COMPATIBILITÀ NEL SISTEMA DELLA COSTITUZIONE. RIFLESSIONI A MARGINE DI UNA PROTESTA INDETTA DAL CALCIO «MILIONARIO»
di Felice Blando*
«Se domandate a un galantuomo che cosa è l’ordine avrete la risposta più azzeccata; magari vi metterete a ridire ma, ripensandoci, vi accorgerete quanto azzeccata è: l’ordine – dice il galantuomo – è la proibizione di far sciopero». L. SCIASCIA, Parrocchie di Regalpetra, Laterza, 1956.
Sommario: 1. La questione dello sciopero dei professionisti sportivi e, in particolare, dei calciatori. Libertà sindacale e libertà sportiva (cenni); – 2. La pretesa inconciliabilità tra diritto di sciopero e interessi dell’organizzazione sportiva. La funzione essenziale del «fair play».
*Dipartimento di Psicologia Universita' degli Studi di Palermo, Italy
DECOSTRUIRE PER LIBERARE
di Liliana Cimino* e Ignazio Licciardi**
Sommario: – 1. Introduzione; – 2. Definendo la decostruzione; – 2.1 Smascherare, svelare, decostruire: approccio filosofico-pedagogico; – 2.2 Approccio socio-psico-pedagogico; – 2.3 L’approccio decostruttivo di alcune teorie pedagogiche del Novecento e Femminismo; – 3. Scheda: Maestri del Decostruzionismo; – 3.1 Jacques Derrida; – 3.2 Edmund Husserl; – 3.3 Friedrich Nietzsche; – 3.4 Karl Raimund Popper; – 3.5 Edgar Morin; – 4. Decostruire la pedagogia; – 5. Conclusioni.
*Dottoressa in Scienze dell’educazione, Università degli Studi di Palermo.
**Professore Ordinario di Pedagogia generale, Università degli Studi di Palermo.
BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE RESPONSE TO TWO RESISTANCE TRAINING TECHNIQUE OF DIFFERENT INTENSITY
Tatiana Moro1, Ewan Thomas2, Gerardo Bosco1
Regular practise of physical activity would contrast obesity and several related disease1, but exercise should be enjoyable and useful to be part of person’s lifestyle. It has been recently demonstrated that High Intensity Resistance Training (HIRT) may increase resting energy expenditure after exercise and may reduce Respiratory Ratio hence improving fat oxidation. The shorter exercise time commitment may help to reduce one major barrier to exercise that is the lack of time. The aim of this study was to verify if HIRT was a safety way of training by the monitoring of Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate (HR) during one session of this kind of exercise and compare it to common protocols propose by ACSM Guidelines (TT). Twenty healthy volunteers performed one session of both type of RT: HIRT technique consists of 6 repetitions, 20” rest, 2/3 repetitions, 20” rest, 2/3 repetitions with 2′30″ rest between sets; TT consisted of 3 sets of 15 repetitions with 1’15” rest between sets. We measured Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during exercise and we calculated mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the Rate Pressure Product (RPP); basal lactate was measured after each session. Subjects shown similar HR response to both training (HIRT=128,20±15,64; TT= 116,29±14,78), also minimal and maximal value weren’t significant different (HIRT= 89,50±18,39 and 149,33±16,26; TT=84,33±15,23 and 150,00±16,12). Any difference also in SBP (HIRT=134,82±13,90; TT= 128,87±12,46) or DBP (HIRT=73,38±10,90; TT=73,94±9,66) interesting was the analysis of maximal and minimal BP and MAP value: during HIRT subjects reach level of DBP minor than during TT (p<0.05) and MAP was significant higher than baseline (p<0.05) only in TT. Subjects showed the same cardiovascular response to different intensity of resistance training. Furthermore, DBP, that is the most important BP parameter, reached lower level during HIRT than TT. The results of this study suggest that HIRT could be a safety way of training, and it could be propose to contrast obesity.
Keywords:resistance training, blood pressure, heart rate, HIRT
1Departement of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Italy
2 Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, Italy
CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND MOTOR/SENSORY DEVELOPMENT
Alessandro Manfré* and Valentina Contrò*
Childhood obesity can be defined as a pathological condition characterized by an excess of adipose tissue due to an over-intake of calories chronically or positive respect to consumption. Because this phenomenon is so widespread in developed countries, activities and multi-disciplinary research aimed at understanding this disorder were promoted. First of all, we will refer to a study of a behavioural disorder food, which shows a correlation between anorexia nervosa and delay sense-perception, assuming that the results obtained are also attributable to obese subjects. The interest of this aspect of research could provide further knowledge on possible brain deficits in subjects with obesity in pediatric age with a focus on family history, risk factors, prevention activities and intervention to reduce the incidence and prevalence.
Keywords: Chilhood obesity, motor/sensory development, eating disorders, prevention, physical activity
*Dipartimento Scienze Giuridiche, della Societa’ e dello Sport
Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy
PEDIATRIC EXERCISE PROGRAMS IN CHILDREN WITH HEMATOLOGICAL CANCER: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Antonino Patti1, Antonio Paoli2, Antonino Bianco1, Antonio Palma 1
In the world today, there are roughly 25 million cancer survivors. Progress in treatments have greatly improved cure rates, with 5-year survival now approaching 80%, but are associated with numerous negative physical and psychological side-effects and a deterioration in the quality of future life. Cancer survivors are at increased risk for second cancers, other forms of comorbidity (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis), and functional decline. Lifestyle factors, such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and smoking cessation may prevent these conditions and improve survivors’ quality of life. Observational research has shown that the physical activity levels of survivors of hematological cancer are low, with deleterious health consequences. The aim of this systematic review was to understand and evaluate if and how much a program of physical activity improves the quality of life in children survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). A systematic literature search was carried out in the MEDLINE/PubMed database (1993-2013) and has been analyzed 40 studies. Completing the analysis it seems that no one exercise-related risks in children was identified in these studies. Though more trials are needed, a growing literature supports the notion that regular physical activity has potential benefits for pediatric hematological cancer survivors.
Keywords:Physical activity, Health, Cancer, Leukemia
1Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Unit, University of Palermo, Italy
2Departement of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
BODY IMAGE IN A COHORT OF SOUTH AFRICAN YOUNGSTERS
Franco Viviani1,2, Erika Dionisio2, Fernando Biague3, Brigitte Bagnol4, Camilla Zecchinato2, Fabio Scarcella2
Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct rising from a number of physiological and psychological components. BI has been studied mostly in well-developed countries, but recently concerns about size, shape and form of the body have grown both in rapidly developing and in low-income countries. To reach insights on BI in South Africa, to 68 students (33 males and 35 females), a modified versions of the Fallon & Rozin’s Test (1988) and the Body Part Satisfaction Scale were administered. The height, weight and triceps skinfold (TRC) of each subject were taken. Data were then compared with those of a similar survey carried out in Guinea-Bissau a decade before on 51 males and 47 females students. The main results show that Guinea-Bissau youngsters were on average satisfied about their physique. Girls had a more “realistic” portrait of themselves than males. They showed a slightly distorted perception on what the other gender liked. In general, stout physiques were preferred. Results from South Africa show in general that boys have a more “realistic” portrait of themselves than girls. Discrepancies emerged on the desires of the other gender only in girls. Regarding dissatisfaction significant gender differences regard buttocks and hips only. For BI, boys in Johannesburg showed, in general, to be more “realistic” than girls, and vice versa in Bissau. The different exposure to mass media and the fact that the latter were more anchored to traditional values can explain the results. The tendencies found in high income countries are lesser marked in both surveys.
Keywords: body image, South Africa, youngsters
1Human Movement Sciences section of the Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Italy
2Applied Psychology section of the FISPPA Department, University of Padua, Italy
3Free University of Bozen, Italy
4University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-PERCEPTION PROFILE: A COMPARISON BETWEEN CHILDREN ATTENDING SPORT AND SEDENTARY CHILDREN
Marianna Alesi* and Annamaria Pepi*
The goal of the study described here was to examine the interrelationship between the sport activity and psychological constructs such as self-esteem (body, school and interpersonal self-esteem) and self-perception profile (global worth, body, athletic, school, behavioural and social self-perceptions) in childhood.
There is a considerable body of recent studies in the literature to focus on the reciprocal enhancement of physical activity and motivational constructs such as self-esteem and self-concept.
Keywords: Self-Esteem; Self-perception; Sport; Education; Children.
*Dipartimento di Psicologia Universita' degli Studi di Palermo, Italy